Quick Reference Guide for How Children Learn
Classical conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Schedules of Reinforcement • Behavioral economy
Unconditioned Stimuli: A stimulus that causes an involuntary response of the autonomic nervous system.
Unconditioned Response: A naturally occurring behavior of the autonomic nervous system. (Involuntary)
Conditioned Stimuli: A stimulus that acquired its power to cause a behavior. It initially lacked such power.
Conditioned Response: A learned response of the autonomic nervous system caused by a conditioned stimulus.
Generalization (stimulus): The tendency of a stimulus, similar to the conditioned stimulus (CS), to cause the conditioned response (CR).
Desensitization: A process of unlearning unwanted responses learned through classical conditioning. (Sometimes called classical extinction)
Negative Reinforcer: The removal of an adverse stimulus that increases the likelihood of a response. A reward.
Positive Reinforcer: A stimulus that increases the likelihood of a response. A reward.
Punishment: The presentation of an aversive stimulus following an undesired response that decreases the likelihood of the undesired response.
Extinction: The process in which a learned response is no longer reinforced, reverting to its preconditioned level.
Successive Approximation (Shaping): The process of rewarding for a behavior each time it gets closer and closer to the desired behavior.
Modeling: A hands on form of shaping behavior. It is learning by imitation.
Fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement: Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of correct behaviors.
Fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement: Reinforcement is given for the first desired behavior following a specific period of time.
Variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement: Reinforcement i s given after a varying number of desired responses.
Variable- interval schedule of reinforcement: Reinforcement is given for the desired behavior based on a varying interval of time.
Token economy: A behavior modification system that uses a token as a conditioned reinforcer.
A collage course on how children learn, in plain English.